Faecal-oral transmission refers to the process whereby disease is transmitted via the faeces of an infected individual, to the mouth of a susceptible individual. This transmission can occur through failures in sanitation systems along the sanitation chain (toilet, containment, conveyance, treatment, end use, and disposal) leading to exposure via various routes including food, water, hands, flies, inanimate objects or surfaces, as illustrated below:
Source: WHO Guidelines on Sanitation and Health (2018).
Faecal-oral transmission can be interrupted by water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) interventions.
Want to know more about faecal-oral transmission of COVID-19?
- Can COVID-19 be transmitted by faecal-oral routes?
- Can transmission occur via aerosolized faeces?
- How long can SARS-CoV-2 persist in the environment?
- Amount of infectious virus shed in faeces and infectious dose
- Has SARS-CoV-2 been detected in human faeces?
- How do we detect COVID-19 in human faeces?
- How do we conduct surveillance for COVID-19 in wastewater and sludge?
- If COVID-19 is a respiratory disease, why would it be detected in faeces?
- Are there special considerations for sanitation and COVID-19?
- Do sanitation workers need to take special precautions while handling faecal waste?
- Do sanitation workers face other risks that require preventative actions?
- Can water sources be contaminated with SARS-Cov-2?
- Guidance for water treatment
- Water quantity